As the digital world continues to evolve, it’s crucial for businesses to ensure that their online presence is accessible to everyone, including those with hearing impairments. In this comprehensive guide, we will discuss various tips and strategies to optimize your website for hearing-impaired visitors.
Table of contents
- Understanding Hearing Impairments
- 1. Incorporating Captions and Subtitles in Videos
- 2. Designing Accessible Video Content for Deaf/HoH Viewers
- 3. Providing Transcripts for Audio and Video Content
- 4. Incorporating Sign Language Translations
- 5. Providing Multiple Contact Options
- 6. Ensuring Video Controls are Accessible
- 7. Designing for Cognitive Accessibility
- 8. Collaborating and Sharing Accessibility Strategies
- 9. Understanding Misconceptions about Hearing Impairments
- 10. Continuously Improving Accessibility
Understanding Hearing Impairments
Before diving into the optimization strategies, it’s essential to understand the different types of hearing impairments. Some people are totally deaf, while others have minor hearing loss. Some examples of hearing impairments include:
- Tinnitus: A persistent ringing or buzzing sound caused by age or damage from loud noises.
- Conductive hearing loss: Damage to the outer and middle ear that obstructs sound entry to the inner ear.
- Sensorineural hearing loss: Caused by a damaged inner ear, cochlea, or auditory nerve.
- Auditory processing disorders: A variety of disorders caused by how the central nervous system interprets auditory stimuli, leading to issues with language processing, differentiating important sounds from background noise, and remembering what was heard.
1. Incorporating Captions and Subtitles in Videos
1.1. What are Captions?
Captions are text on a video that is in the same language as the spoken audio. They are displayed within the video and are synchronized with the audio, allowing people to follow the flow of the conversation. This also helps those who lip-read understand the video better.
1.2. Ensuring Legibility
Captions must be clear and visible on the video, with good contrast against the changing images and legible font size. One way to ensure legibility is to set captions against a dark-colored background to avoid the text blending in with the images.
1.3. Auto-generated Captions
Many video platforms, like YouTube, can automatically generate captions. However, these auto-generated captions are not the most reliable, as the speech recognition technology can incorrectly detect words if the person speaking lacks clarity or has an accent. It’s essential to review and edit autogenerated captions for accuracy.
Subtitles are for audio in the video that is translated into another language. They work in the same way as captions and are also in sync with the video. Note that some countries, like the UK, use the term ‘subtitle’ to refer to both subtitles and captions.
2. Designing Accessible Video Content for Deaf/HoH Viewers
When designing accessible video content for deaf and hard-of-hearing (HoH) viewers, consider the following dos and don’ts:
- Using captions: Do use captions in all video content. Don’t use autogenerated captions without reviewing and editing.
- Accuracy and timing: Do ensure accuracy and synchronization of captions with audio. Don’t provide captions one word at a time.
- Placement: Do move captioning when it would obscure content. Don’t place captions above or to the side of video content.
- Important audio: Do identify each speaker. Don’t caption unimportant audio.
- User changes: Do allow users to change their caption font, color, and background. Don’t use only black and white captions.
- Controls: Do place caption controls in a predictable location. Don’t hide caption controls behind another menu or outside the video player.
3. Providing Transcripts for Audio and Video Content
Transcripts are detailed text versions of both speech and non-speech audio information (such as background sounds, physical reactions like laughter, etc.) needed to understand the content. Transcripts also distinguish the individuals talking. Unlike captions used only for video content, transcripts are used for both video and audio content, such as podcasts.
4. Incorporating Sign Language Translations
Sign language translations can be included in some videos to support people with hearing impairments. This is because, for some, especially deaf people, sign language is their first language and is therefore much easier to understand and follow. Sign language can be included in videos in two ways:
- Having a sign language interpreter sign within the scene to translate what is being said.
- Embedding a video of a sign language interpreter presenting the content in a visible corner of the screen that does not obstruct the actual video.
Sign language is also a useful tool for conveying the audio content of live streams where captions may be difficult to include.
5. Providing Multiple Contact Options
To make your website and your business more accessible for individuals with hearing impairments, provide a variety of different contact options. For example, include options such as email, online forms, live web chat, or even Skype.
6. Ensuring Video Controls are Accessible
For people with limited hearing, having a feature to control the volume can help them hear the audio of the video better. Clear buttons to activate captions and control the size of the captions are also helpful to people with both visual issues alongside hearing impairment.
7. Designing for Cognitive Accessibility
While this guide focuses on optimizing websites for hearing-impaired visitors, it’s essential not to conflate hearing disabilities with cognitive disabilities. Site layout and complicated language are irrelevant to hearing impairments. However, ensuring cognitive accessibility is crucial in its own right.
8. Collaborating and Sharing Accessibility Strategies
The accessibility community is known for its willingness to share and collaborate on strategies and tips that help make accessibility easier for all. By staying informed and aware of the latest accessibility guidelines and best practices, you can ensure your website remains accessible to a diverse audience.
9. Understanding Misconceptions about Hearing Impairments
It’s essential to dispel the misconception that hearing impairments do not affect web experiences. By taking these relatively small steps in creating audio and visual content, you’ll benefit more people than just those with hearing impairments.
10. Continuously Improving Accessibility
As the digital landscape evolves, it’s important to continuously evaluate and improve your website’s accessibility for all users, including those with hearing impairments. By regularly reviewing and updating your accessibility strategies, you can ensure a more inclusive online experience for everyone.
In conclusion, optimizing your website for hearing-impaired visitors is not only a matter of compliance but also a way to show empathy and inclusivity. By implementing the tips and strategies discussed in this comprehensive guide, you can create an accessible and welcoming online environment for all users, regardless of their hearing abilities.